(Sources: left, dongA; right, The Kyunghyang Shinmun)
The more operations, the more possibilities for complications, mistakes, and patient deaths. So, with the highest per capita number of cosmetic surgery operations in the world, you’re always going to hear a lot of harrowing, even terrifying experiences of going under the knife in Korea. Korean cosmetic surgeons, who are no more unethical or incompetent than those from any other country, shouldn’t be singled out for horror stories that can happen anywhere.
But it’s more than just numbers. With so many clinics lacking even basic first-aid equipment; doctors clamoring to break into the lucrative cosmetic surgery market whatever their training and specialty; patients receiving little to no warnings of side-effects; little regulation by the Ministry of Health and Welfare; insufficient support staff because they’re too expensive; and patients doped-up to disguise the fact that the hot-shot surgeons they’ve hired have been replaced with cheaper ones, then the whole industry is well overdue for a makeover. In hindsight, it’s amazing that such an important growth market, and symbol of Korean skill and technological prowess, is really such a cowboy industry.
I learnt how bad things were from translating and following-up on the following article, but frankly it’s not the best source in itself. Feel free to skip through to the links at the end instead, which I hope provide a valuable resource for readers:
성괴 대신 내면미인 뜨는 세상 꿈꾼다 / I Dream of a World of Inside Beauty, Instead of Cosmetic Surgery Monsters
The Kyunghyang Shinmun, 22.05.13, by 이보람 / Lee Bo-ram (firstname.lastname@example.org)
‘성형대한민국’에서 벗어나려면… / How to change this cosmetic surgery republic…
2013년 대한민국의 성형은 과열양상을 넘어 광(狂)적인 면까지 보이고 있다. 이를 잘 나타내는 말이 ‘성괴(성형괴물의 줄임말)’다. 최근 젊은 층에서 유행하는 말인데 똑같은 얼굴의 여성들이 강남거리를 활보하고 있다는 한 웹툰 작가의 만화에서 비롯됐다. 이러한 현상을 없애고 올바른 성형문화가 자리 잡기 위해 선행돼야 할 것은 무엇일까. 전문가들은 무엇보다 ‘내면의 아름다움이 평가받는 나라’가 돼야 한다고 입을 모은다. 특히 우리 사회에 만연된 외모지상주의가 먼저 타파돼야 한다는 지적이다.
In 2013, cosmetic surgery has just gotten crazy in Korea. This is shown in the arrival of a new term, ‘cosmetic surgery monster.’ Popular among young people, it originated from a webtoon about women on the streets of Gangnam all strutting about with the same face. What things have to be done in order to resolve this situation, and cultivate a proper cosmetic surgery culture? Experts say we have to be a country where inner beauty is also evaluated. In particular, we have to do away with the lookism that is deeply entrenched in Korean society.
(Source: Roshiel. See also: “SNL 코리아 Satirizes Korea’s Cosmetic Surgery Craze“)
외모 편견·차별 사라져야 사회정의 구현 / Social Justice Requires the End of Judging and Discrimination based on Appearance
미국 스탠퍼드대 데버러 로우드 법대교수는 저서 ‘아름다움이란 이름의 편견’에서 외모지상주의의 문제점을 꼬집었다. 그는 전반적으로 외모가 떨어지는 사람은 고용이나 승진가능성이 외모가 뛰어난 사람보다 낮았으며 매력적인 외모를 가진 정치인은 그렇지 않은 정치인보다 두 배 이상 많은 표를 얻었다고 말한다. 또 외모를 법적·정치적인 평등의 문제로 바라볼 때 비로소 외모로 인한 편견과 차별을 없애고 진정한 사회적 정의를 구현할 수 있다고 강조한다.
Stanford University Law professor Deborah Rhode pointed out the problems of lookism in her article “Prejudiced Toward Pretty” (2010). She said that, overall, chances of employment and promotion decrease with one’s appearance. Attractive politicians also receive twice as many votes as uglier opponents. Also, she emphasized that in order to realize social justice and end discrimination, it is necessary to think of differences of appearance as a legal and political issue.
건강과 대안 이상윤 책임연구원은 “요즘 우리 사회를 보면 외모에 의해 성과나 능력이 평가되는 것이 도를 넘어섰다”며 “중장기적으로 외모지상주의에 대한 국민적 인식전환이 필요하고 개인의 능력과 성과로 평가받을 수 있는 사회가 돼야겠지만 지금 상황에서는 성형에 대한 피해와 규제부분 등을 보다 정확하게 알리고 천편일률적이고 획일화된 아름다움의 기준이 변할 수 있도록 모두가 노력해야한다”고 지적했다. 전문가들은 이와 함께 성형수술에서 나타날 수 있는 의료분쟁은 물론 의료사고에 대한 인식수준을 높이는 것이 필요하다고 강조했다. 즉 수술을 원하는 이들이 수술에 대한 위험성과 후유증 등을 정확히 알 수 있게 하는 통로가 필요하다는 것이다.
Lee Sang-yoon, chief researcher at the Center for Health and Social Change, said that “When we look at our society these days, it’s ridiculous how much ability and achievements are based on appearance,” and pointed out that “In the mid to long-term, we need to change our attitudes to lookism. We have to become a society in which people are evaluated based on their own individual abilities and achievements. But for now, it is more important to make people aware of the dangers of cosmetic surgery, to regulate it more, and to promote the idea that there is more than just one, monotonous beauty standard to aspire to.”
Experts emphasize that people considering cosmetic surgery should educate themselves more about side-effects and their legal options should problems arise. Both should be made easier for prospective patients.
실제 의료분쟁조정 신청이 매년 증가하는 가운데 성형외과와 관련된 의료분쟁도 큰 축을 차지하고 있다. 한국소비자원 소비자분쟁조정위원회 의료분쟁조정 신청조사 결과 올해 1분기에 신청된 의료분쟁조정사건은 233건으로 전년 동기(73건) 대비 약 3배 이상 증가했다. 진료과목별로는 내과, 정형외과·성형외과, 치과, 신경외과 순이었다.
한국소비자원 관계자는 “치료방법의 장단점을 숙지하고 고령이나 수술병력이 있는 환자의 경우 치료방법에 따른 효과나 부작용, 비용 등을 충분히 고려한 후 수술은 최후에 신중하게 결정해야한다”고 말했다.
Medical malpractice suits are increasing every year, a large proportion of which are cosmetic surgery-related. According to a survey by the Korea Consumer Agency, in the first quarter of 2013 there were 233 suits, over three times those in the same period the year before (73). In order of ranking, most were internal medicine related, followed equally by orthopedic surgery and cosmetic surgery, then dental, and finally neurology.
A spokesperson [A guess—literally, the term is "person connected to"] from the Korea Consumer Agency said “People have to weigh the good points against the costs and possible side-effects of cosmetic surgery very carefully. Older patients and those with preexisting conditions and medical histories should really consider if it is necessary at all.”
성형수술피해자 ‘인권·구제’ 사각지대서 방황 / Cosmetic Surgery Victims Are at a Loss
또 성형에 대한 ‘정확하고 올바른 정보 제공’이 필요하다는 지적도 이어졌다. 사실 지금으로선 성형외과수술에 대한 정보는 일부 병원이나 업체에서 운영 중인 포털사이트 카페나 관련 블로그 글들이 대부분이다.
Accurate and unbiased information about cosmetic surgery is also required. At the moment, information is mostly available from portal sites and blogs run by hospitals and the medical industry.
한국환자단체연합회 안기종 대표는 “사실 성형수술피해자들은 인권이나 구제 부분에서 사각지대에 놓여있는 상태”라며 “아무래도 본인이 원한 수술이었기 때문에 수술 후 의사에게서도, 가족에게서도, 나아가 사회에서도 외면 받는 상태”라고 말했다. 안 대표는 “본인이 예뻐지고 외모적인 만족을 얻기 위해 수술을 했지만 수술 후 부작용이 생겼거나 의료사고가 발생했다면 당연히 그에 합당한 법적 보호를 받아야한다”며 “정부가 정확한 성형피해자 실태조사에 나서 적극적으로 보호받을 수 있는 통로가 마련돼야한다”고 주장했다.
An Gi-jong, a spokesperson for the Korea Alliance of Patients Organization, said “In fact, cosmetic surgery victims are in a bit of a blindspot in terms of their support and legal rights,” as “because the surgeries are voluntary, when things go wrong they receive little sympathy from society, their doctors, and even their families.” He insisted that “even if the victim underwent surgery to improve their appearance, if malpractice occurs they should still receive legal protection,” and “the government should look into the current status of cosmetic surgery malpractice cases and implement a more proactive way of safeguarding their rights.”
현장에선 성형진료 허용 놓고 ‘갑론을박’만…. / The Pros and Cons of Limiting Cosmetic Surgery Licenses
이처럼 성형수술이 과열양상이 보이면서 일각에서는 성형진료를 성형외과 전문의에게만 받을 수 있도록 한다든지 전문의와 비전문의를 보다 확실하게 구분할 수 있도록 하는 대안이 필요하다는 목소리도 나오고 있다.
As explained, cosmetic surgery is getting out of control. So, one school of thought holds that only specialists should be permitted to perform operations.
대한성형외과의사회 이상목 회장은 “성형외과가 난립하고 각종 성형과 관련된 의료사고가 빈번하게 발생하는 이유는 전문의가 아닌 이들이 성형관련 진료와 수술을 하기 때문”이라며 “정부는 보다 확실하게 성형 전문의와 비전문의를 차별화해 국민들이 제대로 선택할 수 있게 하는 방안을 강구해야한다”고 말했다.
Lee Sang-mok, chairperson of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, said “One reason there are so many clinics popping-up and the number of malpractice suits is increasing is because so many non-specialists are performing surgeries.” Consequently “The government should make a division between specialists and non-specialists and help patients to choose doctors appropriately.”
하지만 전문의와 비전문의를 차별화하고 전문의에 대한 정보만 제공할 경우 오히려 일부 전문의에게만 시장독점권이 부여돼 비용이 높아지는 문제가 생길 수 있다는 반론도 만만치 않다.
However, if such a division is made, and patients are directed only towards specialists, there is a danger of monopolization and increased costs for consumers.
보건복지부 보건의료정책과 관계자는 “현재 의료법상에서 의사면허를 취득한 이들은 성형이나 피부 등의 의료행위를 할 수 있다”며 “전문의와 비전문의를 나누는 등의 규제는 오히려 한쪽에 독점적인 권한을 주게 돼 가격심화현상이 빚어지게 될 것”이라고 말했다.
A spokesperson [Again, technically a person connected to] from the Ministry of Health and Welfare’s medical welfare department said “According to current laws, anybody with a medical license can perform cosmetic surgery or dermatological operations,” and agreed that “a division between specialists and non-specialists would result in monopolization and higher costs.”
여기에 과도한 병원광고나 마케팅 등을 규제하고 제지할 필요가 있다는 의견도 꾸준하게 제기되고 있다. 이에 정부는 과열된 미용성형수술 오·남용 사안을 점검하고 예방대책을 강구하기 위한 ‘보건의료안전관리대책협의회’를 꾸린 상태다. 정부는 협의회를 통해 무분별한 미용성형광고를 제지하고 이용을 부추기는 부분에 대한 규제를 검토 중인 것으로 알려졌다.
In addition, there are an increasing number of voices raised against excessive hospital advertising and marketing, and are calling for their regulation. In response, the government established the Health Safety and Prevention Association in order to investigate how to cool down the cosmetic surgery fever, its marketing, and to and prevent abuse and excesses within the industry (end).
Here are some links for further reading, in chronological order. Naturally, most cover much of the same material as each other, so for busy readers I’ve highlighted some of the most important points from them here (source, right: 헬스경향):
- The price of beauty in South Korea, BBC, February 2005
A very old article of course, but its description of the industry could easily pass for 2014.
- Double Jaw Surgery In South Korea A Dangerous New Fad, The World Post, May 2013
Cut throat competition among the growing number of plastic surgeons has driven some to promote more radical procedures that others might not offer…
…A doctor with the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons said the procedure took off around four years ago when a Seoul dental clinic ran a major ad campaign promoting the cosmetic benefits.
As it became popular, plastic surgeons began offering the surgery, causing the price to fall and making it more affordable to more people.
“If we are seeing more complications, that’s largely because the sheer number of people getting the surgery has increased rapidly in such a short period of time,” said the doctor, who declined to be identified.
- Deaths highlight plastic surgery risk, Korea JoongAng Daily, October 2013
As the number of plastic surgeries has risen in Korea, so too has the risk for accidents. According to the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 650,000 plastic surgeries were performed in Korea in 2011. But experts also point to lax regulations and inadequate facilities as cause for concern.
About 839 out of 1,091 cosmetic surgery clinics nationwide lack proper emergency medical equipment, according to an assessment by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. And many clinics go without hiring anesthesiologists or trained professionals to cut costs.
By law, any doctor with a medical license can perform a cosmetic surgery, even if he or she does not specialize in the field. The clinic in North Chungcheong, where one patient died in March, did not have a specialist.
- Tougher rules urged for plastic surgery clinics, The Korea Times, March 2014
Experts point out that clinics should be equipped with appropriate medical equipment to deal with emergencies that can occur during a surgery.
However, most do not have this or any other measures in place.
In data provided to Rep. Choi Dong-ik of the main opposition Democratic Party (DP), 77 percent out of 1,100 clinics performing cosmetic surgery were not equipped with defibrillators or ventilators, which are mandatory devices for first aid. Only 1.2 percent of such clinics in Gangnam have emergency equipment…
…Laws governing medical advertizing state that such billboards must have warnings included details of the potential side effects of surgery, but most have these in such small lettering that it is barely legible. An abundance of plastic surgery ads appeared after the government allowed medical institutions to set up promotions outside their premises in 2012.
- Deaths lead to calls to regulate plastic surgery industry, The Hankyoreh, March 2014
…the Ministry of Health and Welfare has been taking a hands-off approach to plastic surgery because it is not covered by national health insurance.
“The Ministry of Health and Welfare does not guarantee the appropriateness of medical activity or the safety of new medical technology,” said Kim Jun-hyun, a member of the policy board for the Health Right Network. “The Ministry should at least assess the safety of operations offered by plastic surgery clinics through an official investigation.”
- Stop Rampant Malpractice in Plastic Surgery, The Chosun Ilbo, March 2014
The number of complaints involving botched procedures almost tripled from 1,698 in 2008 to 4,806 last year, according to the Korea Consumer Agency. Among the 71 people who got help from the KCA in settling disputes over botched plastic surgery in the first half of 2013, only 15 percent said their surgeons warned them of the risks and potential side effects in advance.
- Plastic surgeons’ ethics questioned, Korea JoongAng Daily, April 2014
Lee Sang-mok, the president of the association who also led the probe, said that his team had discovered instances of ghost surgery among doctors, which is the practice of substituting one surgeon for another without the patient’s knowledge.
The association also acknowledged that some doctors would administer to patients large doses of sleeping pills in order to conceal the fact that a different surgeon was performing the operation.
The president attributed such cases to excessive competition in the industry and low moral standards among surgeons.
- New TV show ‘Back to My Face’ aims to undo excessive plastic surgery, Netizen Buzz, May 2014
- South Korea takes #1 in plastic surgery (per population), Netizen Buzz, August 2014
- Those Damned Double Eyelids
- The Right and Wrong Questions to Ask About Plastic Surgery in Korea
- When K-pop Gets Under Your Skin
- SNL 코리아 Satirizes Korea’s Cosmetic Surgery Craze
- Korean Sociological Image #28: Cosmetic Surgery Advertisements Featuring Caucasians
- From Asian to Caucasian: Update