- Suzy (18): Innocent.
- Song Joong-ki (27): Chic.
- Kim Yoo-jung (13): Young.
Three celebrities, three natural labels.
After all, Kim Yoo-jung is young. Song Joong-ki is chic, or at least compared to us mere mortals. And Suzy?
Well, she is simultaneously the baby, the designated cute member, and the “most visual member” of the girl-group Miss A, all standard archetypes for cookie-cutter K-Pop groups. So, perhaps it’s no wonder she’s become known as ‘The Nation’s First Love’ (kookmin chotsarang;국민 첫사랑).
As the bearer of that label, last year she displaced even Girls’ Generation members to become the ‘CF Queen,’ and she became a major earner for label JYP Entertainment in the process (to the extent that she’s been accused of completely overshadowing the other members of Miss A). Clearly, she’s very popular.
Why then, does seeing this picture of her get me so hot and bothered?
Blame the 30-minute subway rides to work as I pass it everyday. After two weeks of those, I’ve realized there are several questions raised by that label of hers, which I’d love to hear your thoughts on (source, right: Guerrilla Feminism):
1) In Korea, has a male celebrity in his late-teens (or older) ever been explicitly marketed as “innocent”?
To be clear, I’m not saying that their general image can’t be innocent. For instance, as described by Bethany at Seoulbeats, this has certainly been the case for Lee Taemin (and, at 19 now, is something he’s trying to shake off):
Many K-pop fans probably also remember cutie pie Taemin debuting at the age of 15, all fresh-faced and adorable. But while he was the youngest member of SHINee, he also boasted the slickest dance moves onstage and in their music video for “Replay,” which still remains my favorite SHINee song to date. Taemin has been pegged as the cute member of SHINee since his debut days, and even though he has taken on a sexier, more mature look in “Lucifer” and more currently, “Sherlock,” noona fans still remember the days of innocent Taemin. It’s lucky that Taemin had such good hyungs who took care of him so diligently — looking at you, Key. He also graduated high school not long ago…
And, of course, such innocent images have indeed been exploited and/or manufactured by advertisers; in Taemin’s case, by cosmetic company Etude House for one, with appropriately cutesy taglines. But explicitly identifying a young male celebrity as innocent, to the extent that there’s a “soonsoohan;순수한” next to his name like next to Suzy’s? Although I’d be happy to be proven wrong (and I do acknowledge the over-generalizations I may be making in this post), I have the strong suspicion that’s a gendered divide which advertisers and the public simply aren’t prepared to cross.
To buttress that point, consider the following thought experiment:
2) Can anyone imagine the sexes reversed in the opening ad?
Alone or with other women, it goes without saying that women are indeed regularly depicted—or explicitly described—as “chic” in advertisements. Or, in any one of any number of other mature, positive terms. But mix the sexes up, and the tendency is to reaffirm gender stereotypes and roles.
Usually, this is subtle, like in the ways described in my Gender Advertisements in the Korean Context posts. In the opening ad though, it is explicit, the young and innocent females providing the binary opposite to the man’s chicness, thereby affirming his greater sophistication (for a similar example, see this vintage lego ad, ironically usually lauded for its gender neutrality). Which is fine in itself, but to see the sexes reversed is so uncommon as to be jarring, and all the more memorable for it.
Like in this 2011 Missha advertisement for instance (source: Metro), with then 41 year-old Kim Hye-soo and—albeit not exactly innocent-looking—25 year-old Jung Yun-ho and 23 year-old Shim Changmin of TVXQ. Personally, it reminds me of “Jane Bond” a little:
(Source: Tumblr, Gender Role Reversals)
3) Is this gender stereotype more prevalent in Korea than elsewhere?
With the provisos that (sexual) innocence will always be treasured more in females than in males, as the latter will always have concerns about the paternity of their children; and that, as Brian in Jeollanam-do put it, everything in Korea “tries to be cute, in the same way everything in the States is “Xtreme” and too cool for school,” I’d wager this is indeed the case. Consider how:
- Stressing the cuteness, innocence, and (supposed) asexuality of young female celebrities is the modus operandi — i.e., key to deflecting criticism — of “ajosshi fandom” and “uncle fandom.”
- Through young, overwhelmingly female celebrities, Korean girls are heavily socialized to use infantilizing aegyo
- Not only is there also a “The Nation’s Little Sister” out there in addition to Suzy being “The Nation’s First Love,” but: a) There are no male equivalents; and b) Technically, Suzy is actually the third first love!, with JYP, well-known for experimenting until a concept is shown to work, arguably more responding to this clear media-driven and/or public demand for one rather than deliberately over-promoting Suzy per se.
As a commenter at Netizen Buzz explains (my emphasis; source, right: 윤삼의 블로그):
ppl always complaint that Suzy get too much spotlight, too much articles. But it’s funny that when there’re some articles/ objects about other members, nobody cares. I think it’s not Suzy’s fault to make other members become underrated. it’s just that fans ( specially K-fans) don’t love them enough. If everybody don’t love Suzy so much, she won’t be get so many CFs, drama invitations. You have to understand that they want Suzy to be in their dramas, CFs, not others. So we can’t say “Instead of using Suzy, why don’t we use Min/Jia/Fei?” And JYP can’t do nothing with it. And why ppl kept hating on her? She has to work with a murderous schedule, but she never complaint about anything. Just keep working so hard and share her money to her unnies, but still she get so many hates. You guys always think that’s not fair for others but I think that’s not fair for Suzy too.
And on that note, again I acknowledge any generalizations I may have made in this post (difficult to avoid with something ultimately based on just one ad!), and am happy to learn of exceptions. But even happier though, to learn of your own thoughts on those questions!
Update 1: An April 13 Netizen Buzz headline says “Suzy takes the lead as the star with the most CFs in 2013 with 22.”
Update 2: See KpopStarz for the November 2013 rankings of the various contenders for the title of “Korea’s Little Sister” over the last five years.
(For more posts in the Korean Sociological Image series, see here)
11 thoughts on “Korean Sociological Image #76: Gendered Innocence and “The Nation’s First Love””
I don’t know why but the first image, the ad for Galaxy Pop, isn’t loading. In Chrome at least.
I had to fetch it (when I finally understood there *was* a missing image!) in the source at: https://thegrandnarrative.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/galaxy-pop-advertisement.jpg
Maybe I’m not the only one with the loading issue…
Thanks very much for letting me know, but for a change I think it’s just your computer and not the post sorry: I’ve tried in 4 different browsers, and it’s always there!
Try clearing your cache, which usually does the job for me.
Update: it’s okay on my smartphone too!
With the release of SHINee’s newest song “Dream Girl” innocent Taemin is now being referred to as “TaeMAN”. It just looks to me like a had a haircut.
Haha. Seriously though, if I was more into Korean boy-bands, it would be interesting to contrast and compare members’ image makeovers. Kinda proving my point though, I’d wager it would be difficult to find more than a handful of examples, whereas I’d be spoilt for choice with the girls/women!
James, your balancing of feminist cultural criticism with an appreciation of evolutionary psychology is a big part of what makes your blog outstanding — but please be careful of formulations like:
” (sexual) innocence will always be treasured more in females than in males, as the latter will always have concerns about the paternity of their children”
The important factor isn’t whether at any given point in the future males will currently be challenged by paternity certainly, but rather that we evolved through contexts where our ancestors consistently were. Just as many men would have no conscious intention of impregnating an innocent-looking woman (or have an explicit intention not to) an yet be sexually attracted to her, many men are also consciously happy to raise a child that they know is not theirs biologically — and yet these men still do not escape the instinctive perceptions of attractiveness that have been correlated with virginity throughout deep evolutionary time.
Thanks for the compliments Jeremy, and of course I take your point about fathers that choose to adopt. Actually, I did consider adding it to the line you quote, but frankly — no offense — considered it obvious, so I didn’t think that caveat was necessary. (After all, when in doubt, writers should always err on the side of less rather than more words!)
You work in the area of gender studies, and you think the distinction between current environment and environment of adaptation is obvious??? Find a way to get it through to your colleagues, and you’ll deserve a Nobel Prize (in something or other).
Actually I don’t *wistful sigh* work in gender studies, and (again, frankly, but no offense meant) found your first comment a little confusing. So, I thought you were only referring to the fact that adoptive fathers obviously know full well that their children aren’t theirs biologically, but still choose to raise them nevertheless. Either way, that specifically — nothing else — is the “it” I meant when I said it’s obvious, and so didn’t need mentioning.
Sorry for any confusion!